CONFUCIUS
Content and Topics


Since Confucius was perhaps the first professional teacher of adults, or what we call higher education, there must not have been organized curriculum in his time. Although Confucius did discourse on definite subjects repeatedly and also recommended that his students study specific pursuits, it appears unlikely that these subjects were categorized or isolated from each other anywhere near like they are today. The continual purpose of Confucius' teaching was practical and designed to help each person improve his character and conduct, and perhaps become prepared for an official position in the government.

Although Confucius encouraged his students to learn about many things, he suggested that they be very selective and careful in what they said and did. Since Tzu-chang was studying to attain an official salary, the master recommended, "Hear much and put aside what is doubtful while you speak cautiously of the rest. Then few will blame you. See much and put aside what seems perilous while you are cautious in carrying the rest into practice. Then you will have few occasions for regret. When one's words give few occasions for blame and his acts give few occasions for repentance, he is on the way to receiving a salary."1 Actually Confucius was not as concerned about the quantity of one's knowledge, but emphasized what he considered to be the essence of it all. Once when talking with Tzu-kung, Confucius perceived that his student was getting the wrong impression and said to him to clarify the situation, "I believe you look upon me as one whose aim is simply to learn and remember as many things as possible." Tzu-kung replied that this is what he thought, and asked the master if it was so. Confucius responded, "No; I have one thread which runs through them all."2 We hope to discover this underlying unity which pervades Confucius' teachings as we examine their content. However, the golden rule does stand out as the most important rule of conduct. When Tzu-kung asked if there was a single saying which one could practice all the time, Confucius said, "Perhaps the saying about consideration: 'Do not do to others what you do not want them to do to you.'"3 Stated in the negative this way, the golden rule allows each person more freedom. Instead of telling a person how to act toward others, which could be an infliction of one's personal values or tastes upon the other, it says only not to do those things which one feels would be an infliction, leaving the other choices of conduct free.

Before we catalog the various topics of Confucius' teaching, there is one pre-requisite he emphasized for there to be any clear communication, and that was the correct use of language. When Tzu-lu asked Confucius what would be his first measure in administering the government for the prince of Wei, he answered with certainty that it would be to correct language. Tzu-lu could not believe it and scoffed at such an idea. So Confucius explained why: "Yu! How uncultivated you are! A gentleman, in regard to things he does not know, maintains a cautious reserve. If language is incorrect, then what is said is not in accordance with the truth of things. If language is not in accordance with the truth of things, affairs cannot be carried on to success. When affairs cannot be carried on to success, proprieties and music will not flourish. When proprieties and music do not flourish, punishments will go astray. When punishments go astray, the people do not know how to move hand or foot. Therefore the gentleman uses only such language as is proper to speak, and only speaks of what it would be proper to carry out. The gentleman, in what he says, leaves nothing to mere chance."4 We see here the importance of a close correlation between reality and knowledge, between knowledge and words, and between words and deeds. The correct understanding of language, then, plays a key intermediary function. The final quote in The Analects emphasizes this for human understanding. Confucius said, "He who does not understand the will of Heaven cannot be regarded as a gentleman. He who does not know the rules of propriety cannot establish his character. He who does not understand words, cannot understand people."5

Subjects of Study
According to one passage in The Analects, Confucius taught four things: culture, conduct, loyalty, and truthfulness.6 Culture consisted of literature, music, and perhaps propriety, though it is also a part of conduct. Confucius indicated the value of each: "Let a man be stimulated by poetry, established in character by the rules of propriety, and perfected by music."7 These pursuits were means by which one may achieve the higher ideal of following the Way. "The gentleman extensively studies literature and restrains himself with the rules of propriety. Thus he will not violate the Way."8 Although these may be aids to the Way, the higher ideals come before the arts of culture in importance. "Set your heart upon the Way. Support yourself by its virtue. Rely on goodness. Find recreation in the arts."9 Actually the moral duties were considered essential and came before the arts which were almost like extra-curricular activities. "A young man's duty is to behave well to his parents at home and to his elders abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and punctual in keeping them, to overflow in love to all, and to cultivate the friendship of the good. If, when all that is done, he has any energy to spare, then let him study the cultural arts."10

The Classics
What was the literature? Even in Confucius' time there existed six classics on poetry, history, music, changes, propriety, and the annals, which were all studied in depth by the master, as he often referred to them. Although it is not as early a text as The Analects, the following selection from Chapter 26 of the Liki describes and illustrates the use of the six ancient classics.

Confucius said, "When I enter a country, I can easily tell its type of culture. When the people are gentle and kind and simple-hearted, that shows the teaching of poetry. When people are broad-minded and acquainted with the past, that shows the teaching of history. When the people are generous and show a good disposition, that shows the teaching of music. When the people are quiet and thoughtful, and show a sharp power of observation, that shows the teaching of the philosophy of change. When the people are humble and respectful and frugal in their habits, that shows the teaching of propriety. When the people are cultivated in their speech, ready with expressions and analogies, that shows the teaching of prose, or Spring and Autumn Annals. The danger in the teaching of poetry is that people remain ignorant, or too simple-hearted. The danger in the teaching of history is that people may be filled with incorrect legends and stories of events. The danger in the teaching of music is that the people grow extravagant. The danger in the teaching of philosophy is that the people become crooked. The danger in the teaching of propriety is that the rituals become too elaborate. And the danger in the teaching of Spring and Autumn Annals is that the people get a sense of the prevailing moral chaos. When a man is kind and gentle and simple-hearted, and yet not ignorant, we may be sure he is deep in the study of poetry. When a man is broad-minded and acquainted with the past, and yet not filled with incorrect legends or stories of events, we may be sure he is deep in the study of history. When a man is generous and shows a good disposition and yet not extravagant in his personal habits, we may be sure he is deep in the study of music. When a man is quiet and thoughtful and shows a sharp power of observation, and yet is not crooked, we may be sure that he is deep in the study of philosophy. When a man is humble and polite and frugal in his personal habits and yet not full of elaborate ceremonies, we may be sure he is deep in the study of propriety. And when a man is cultivated in his speech, ready with expressions and analogies and yet is not influenced by the picture of the prevailing moral chaos, we may be sure that he is deep in the study of Spring and Autumn Annals."11

We see from this that more than a mere acquaintance with the classics was recommended, but the quality of study and practice which goes beyond the superficialities.

Confucius is often quoted in The Great Treatise on the I Ching. In one passage he explains why the book was devised in the first place. He said, "Writing cannot express thoughts completely." Someone then asked if we are then unable to see the thoughts of the holy sages. Confucius replied, "The holy sages set up the images in order to express their thoughts completely; they devised the hexagrams in order to express the true and the false completely. Then they appended judgments and so could express their words completely."12 It is likely that Confucius extensively used not only the I Ching but the other classics as well in his instruction of students. Ssu-ma Ch'ien records that Confucius read the I Ching so frequently that the leather strap which held the bamboo "pages" together was worn out and replaced three times.13

As we have seen, Confucius was a traditionalist who claimed only to be a transmitter of the ancients, which explains his great reverence for the classics. He said he followed the traditions of the Chou dynasty particularly the Duke of Chou, one of its founders. However, his ancestors were from the state of Sung and were probably of the Shang nobility.14 This may account for why he followed the three-year mourning period which was a Shang custom. Also the legendary emperors he revered above all were from the earliest Hsia dynasty. He explains this eclectic approach as being due to the Chou's accumulation of culture from these previous dynasties. "Chou could survey the two preceding dynasties. How great a wealth of culture! We follow upon Chou."15 In the biography of Confucius by Ssu-ma Ch'ien written about 100 BC we have a more elaborate description of how Confucius related to the three dynasties.

In the time of Confucius, the power of the Chou Emperors had declined, the forms of worship and social intercourse had degenerated, and learning and scholarship had fallen into decay. Confucius studied the religious or ceremonial order and historical records of the three dynasties, and he traced the events from the times of the Emperors Yao and Shun down to the times of Duke Mu of Ch'in and arranged them in chronological order. And he once said, "I should be able to talk about the feudal order of Hsia, but there are not enough surviving customs in the city of Chi. I should be able to discuss the feudal order of the Shang dynasty but there are not enough surviving customs in the city of Sung. If there were enough surviving customs, I should be able to reconstruct them with evidence." And he surveyed the changes of customs between the Hsia and Shang dynasties, and after noting how these customs ran on into the Chou period with modifications, he said, "I can even predict how the future historical development will be for a hundred generations." He noted how one dynasty represented a culture with a wealth of ceremonial forms, and how the other dynasty represented a culture of the simple life, and how the Chou dynasty had combined and merged the two previous cultures into a perfect, beautiful pattern, and he therefore decided that he would choose the Chou culture as the ideal. Therefore, Confucius handed down a tradition of historic records of the various ancient customs.16

Although there is probably some later projection here and we can see why Ssu-ma Ch'ien is called the father of Chinese historians using already Hegel's dialectic, still the tradition of Confucius as a transmitter of historical tradition is probably not unfounded.

We mentioned earlier how Confucius practiced archery, and although it may not have been taught by Confucius himself, the gentleman's education was probably expected to include athletics, especially this art of the bow.

Poetry and Music
Poetry, of course, was an important subject of study. Confucius particularly used it to stress moral values. "All three hundred odes can be covered by one of their sentences, 'Let there be no evil in your thoughts.'"17 However, poetry had broader humanistic value for understanding oneself and other people, and even increased one's awareness of the natural world. "My children, why do you not study the Book of Poetry? The Odes serve to stimulate the mind. They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation. They teach the art of sociability. They show how to regulate feelings of resentment. From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one's father, and the remoter one of serving one's prince. From them we become largely acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants."18

Confucius was also a great lover of music and played some himself. However, the teaching of this art was apparently handed over to the Grand music master to whom Confucius gave his ideas on how music should follow the ideal of the ancient pattern and then allow for some improvisation while still maintaining harmony. "Their music in so far as one can find out about it began with a strict unison. Soon the musicians were given more liberty; but the tone remained harmonious, brilliant, consistent, right on till the close."19 Ssu-ma Ch'ien quotes this exact passage, but then goes on to give more information in regard to Confucius' use of poetry and music.

He once also said, "After my return to Lu from Wei, I have been able to restore the musical tradition and classify the music of sung and ya and restore the songs to their respective original music." In the ancient times, there were over three thousand songs, but Confucius took out the duplicates and selected those that were suited to good form. The collection began with the songs of Ch'i and Houchi, covered the great period of the Shang and Chou kings and carried it down to the times of the tyrants Yu and Li. It begins with a song of marital love, and therefore it is said "the song Kuan-ch'ih heads the collection of Feng; Luming heads the collection of the 'Little ya'; and Ch'ingmiao heads the collection of the Sung." Confucius personally sang all the three hundred and five songs and played the music on a string instrument to make sure that it fitted in with the score of hsiao, wu, ya, and sung. Through his efforts, the tradition of ancient rites and music was therefore rescued from oblivion and handed down to posterity, that they might help in the carrying out of this ideal of a king's government and in the teaching of "the Six Arts."20

Lin Yutang tells us that "the six Arts" could not only refer to the six classics mentioned above but also to the six branches of study practiced during these times, namely propriety, music, archery, carriage-driving, reading, and mathematics.21 Also in considering these later accounts, we must be aware of the tendency to glorify and expand on what Confucius did. Although Ssu-ma Ch'ien often went against orthodox Confucian beliefs, he was susceptible to exaggeration, as can be seen from this: "Confucius taught poetry, history, propriety, and music to 3,000 pupils of whom 72, like Yen Tutsou, had mastered "the Six Arts."22

There is one more marvelous anecdote from Ssu-ma Ch'ien concerning Confucius' playing of music.

Confucius was once learning to play on ch'in (a string instrument) from the music master Hsiang-tzu, and did not seem to make much progress for ten days. The music master said to him, "You may well learn something else now," and Confucius replied, "I have already learned the melody, but have not learned the beat and rhythm yet." After some time, the music master said, "You have now learned the beat and rhythm, you must take the next step." "I have not learned the expression," said Confucius. After a while, the music master again said, "Now you have learned the expression, you must take the next step." And Confucius replied, "I have not yet got an image in my mind of the personality of the composer." After some time the music master said, "There's a man behind this music, who is occupied in deep reflection and who sometimes happily lifts his head and looks far away, fixing his mind upon the eternal." "I've got it now," said Confucius. "He is a tall, dark man and his mind seems to be that of an empire builder. Can it be any other person than King Wen himself?" The music master rose from his seat and bowed twice to Confucius and said, "It is the composition of King Wen."23

Propriety
As moderns, Confucius' emphasis on ritual ceremonies according to the rules of propriety is probably more difficult for us to relate to than any other aspect of his teaching. However, in the ancient times when "civilized culture was by no means universal, the danger of falling back into a primitive "barbarism" was probably very real. The rules of propriety offered a code of accepted conduct and behavior which they knew would work from past experience. These were the traditions and customs which demonstrated to themselves and others that they were cultured and proper gentlemen. For Confucius, the gentleman knew and behaved according to the rules of propriety. In the first chapter of The Analects, Yu Tzu gives an account of their value. "Among the functions of propriety the most valuable is that it establishes harmony. The Way of the ancient kings from this harmony got its beauty. It is the guiding principle of all things great and small. If things go amiss, and he who knows the harmony tries to achieve it without regulating it by the rules of propriety, they will still go amiss."24

Confucius himself explains what can happen if conduct is not guided by propriety. "Courtesy not bounded by the rules of propriety becomes tiresome. Caution not bounded by the rules of propriety becomes timidity, daring becomes insubordination, straightforwardness becomes rudeness."25 As much as he loved them, Confucius did not believe in over- indulging in ceremonies, and the feelings should be proper to the circumstances. "In ceremonies it is better to be sparing than extravagant. Funeral ceremonies should be observed in deep sorrow rather than in fear."26

Often what was appropriate was a kind of golden mean. "When substance exceeds refinement, one becomes rude. When refinement exceeds substance, one becomes pedantic. When substance and refinement are properly blended, then one is a gentleman."27 Confucius was aware that the ancient ways had been moderated in his own time, and that such moderation was politic. "Were anyone today to serve his prince according to the full rules of propriety he would be thought a sycophant."28

Politics
As many of Confucius' students were anxious to obtain positions in the government and also as Confucius himself hoped for an opportunity to advise rulers, it is natural that the art of politics was a favorite topic of conversation. The goal for Confucius was not merely to be learned in many subjects, but to be able to put one's knowledge into practice. Otherwise, what good is it? He said, "A man may be able to recite the three hundred Odes; but, if when given a post in the government, he does not know how to act, or when sent on a mission to far parts he cannot answer specific questions, however extensive his knowledge may be, of what use is it to him?"29

However, a person first must improve himself and regulate his own conduct before he could hope to rule over others. Thus self-improvement was pre-requisite to engaging in politics. "If a minister makes his own conduct correct, he will have no difficulty in assisting in government. But if he cannot rectify himself, how can he possibly rectify others?"30 Although Confucius describes wisdom and goodness as essential to ruling, they still must be carried out with dignity, and according to propriety. He explains why.

He whose wisdom brings him into power, needs goodness to secure that power. Else, though he get it, he will certainly lose it. He whose wisdom brings him into power and who has goodness to secure that power, if he has not dignity to approach the common people, they will not respect him. He whose wisdom has brought him into power, who has goodness to secure that power, and dignity to approach the common people, if he handles them contrary to the rules of propriety, full excellence is not reached.31

Confucius believed that one's political action should follow the Way, as a higher ideal than whatever happens to be occurring in a particular government. One's actions, therefore, will vary depending on whether the government is following the Way or not. He gives this advice for the different circumstances:

Have sincere faith and love learning. Be not afraid to die for pursuing the good Way. Do not enter a state that pursues dangerous courses, nor stay in a chaotic one. When the Way prevails under Heaven, then show yourself; when it does not prevail, then hide. When the Way prevails in your own land and you are poor and in a humble position, be ashamed of yourself. When the Way does not prevail in your land and you are wealthy and in an honorable position, be ashamed of yourself.32

Confucius shows here political acumen and flexibility without compromising moral principles. He expresses similar political wisdom in these statements: "When the Way prevails in the land, be bold in speech and bold in action. When the Way does not prevail, be bold in action but conciliatory in speech."33 Without giving up courage in action, Confucius still recommends verbal discretion. Confucius knew how to hold his tongue, knowing not only when it was wise not to speak but also when it was not proper to speak. "He who holds no office in a state does not discuss its policies."34

There was always someone who might misunderstand how to put the Way into practice. Chi K'ang-tzu asked Confucius if it would be a good idea to kill those who had not the Way in order to help those who had the Way. The master used the opportunity to describe the influence of a good ruler on the common people. He said, "You are there to rule, not to kill. If you desire what is good, the people will be good. The essence of the gentleman is that of wind; the essence of small people is that of grass. And when a wind blows over the grass, then it bends."35

The proper relation between a ruler and his minister or between a parent and child, while not being reciprocal as between equals, still benefited by the proper attitude and conduct in each case. The political and family situations were treated as being analogous. The ruler or parent should love his people or children, while the minister or son should be loyal to the ruler or parent. Confucius explains the proper behavior of each. "How can he be said truly to love, who exacts no effort from the objects of his love? How can he be said to be truly loyal, who refrains from admonishing the object of his loyalty?"36

Confucius summarizes the art of the ruler as follows:

A country of a thousand war-chariots cannot be administered unless the ruler attends strictly to business, punctually observes his promises, is economical in expenditure, loves the people, and uses the labor of the peasantry only at the proper times of year.37

For a moralist Confucius was quite down-to-earth and practical, and in an age of aristocracy he shows a remarkable humaneness toward the common people. But maybe this should not be so surprising since humanity and goodness were at the heart of his philosophy.

Religion
Although Confucius himself was a religious man in that he followed the religious practices of his time, he did not dwell on those issues in his instruction. It is pointed out several times in The Analects that Confucius rarely discussed spiritual matters. Tzu-kung said, "We can hear our master on culture and its manifestation, but we cannot hear his views on human nature and the Way of Heaven."38 One reason may be that the more sacred teachings were not for every man's ears, and thus were kept esoteric among those who were ready to hear them. Or, perhaps Confucius did not consider rational discussion relevant or appropriate to transcendental and mystical questions. As we have seen, "destiny" as the will of Heaven was central in his personal beliefs, but The Analects states, "Confucius seldom talked about profit, destiny, and goodness."39 Actually there were many sayings about goodness recorded in The Analects which we will discuss later in this chapter. We should keep in mind that The Analects certainly represents only a small selection of Confucius' conversations over a period of many years, and that discussions about goodness were probably considered to be very important to the disciples; thus, though they may have occurred infrequently, many of them found their way into the written documents. It should be obvious why an ethical teacher like Confucius did not talk about profit as often as some of his listeners might have wished.

Even more so did Confucius stay away from mentioning the supernatural phenomena. "Confucius never discussed strange phenomena, physical exploits, disorders of nature, or spirits."40 For Confucius, none of these issues were to the point, but tended to side-track people from knowing and improving their own character. Since serving the spirits of the dead was the most important thing in the contemporary Chinese religion, the following statements show Confucius as a radical humanist. When Tzu-lu asked how one should serve ghosts and spirits, Confucius replied, "Till you have learned to serve men, how can you serve ghosts?" Tzu-lu then ventured to ask about the dead, and Confucius said, "Till you know about the living, how can you know about the dead?"41 Yet Confucius did practice the traditional religion with sincerity and reverence. In fact he considered his own attitude to be the most important factor in the sacrifices.

When Confucius offered sacrifice to his ancestors, he felt as if his ancestral spirits were actually present. When he offered sacrifice to other spiritual beings, he felt as if they were actually present. He said, "If I do not participate in the sacrifice, it is as if I did not sacrifice at all."42

Perhaps the higher religion for Confucius was for a man to follow the Way. The following statement expresses an idea very similar to the philosophy of Lao Tzu, about whom legend says Confucius talked with one time. "Who expects to be able to go out of a house except by the door? How is it then that no one follows this Way of ours?"43 For Confucius the sure way was to follow the steps of the ancients. When asked about the Way of the good man, Confucius replied, "He who does not tread in the footprints cannot expect to find his way into the Inner Room."44 Thus he felt that the goal or perfection of man was found within oneself as symbolized here by the inner sanctuary.

The inner nature rather than the outward appearance of a man were what concerned Confucius. If these impoverished aristocrats so prevalent at the time were ashamed of their outer circumstances, then their inner attitude was not correct; thus their advice could not be trusted. "A knight whose heart is set upon the Way, but who is ashamed of wearing shabby clothes and eating coarse food, is not worth calling into counsel."45 Confucius felt that there were different levels of the Way as far as men are concerned. Knowing what the Way is was only the first step. If one loves the Way, he will also follow it; but this is not as good as following it enthusiastically. "To know it is not as good as to love it, and to love it as not as good as to take delight in it."46 Are these stages of wisdom?

Virtue
One of the central concepts for both Lao Tzu and Confucius was teh, which is being translated here as "virtue" in the ancient sense of a power or ability for goodness. The Chinese term has the connotation of spiritual power or moral power which people can "build up" within themselves. Confucius saw that it took love and desire to build up this virtue, but he was also aware of the power of sexual attraction. "I have not seen one who loves virtue as he loves beauty."47 Another translation reads: "I have never yet seen anyone whose desire to build up his moral power was as strong as sexual desire."48 Virtue, for Confucius then, is developed through love or desire for goodness, but it must compete with the more powerful sexual urges. Thus becoming virtuous was no easy task.

Once Tzu-chang asked about a rhymed couplet mentioning "piling up virtue" and "deciding when in two minds." Confucius said, "By 'piling up virtue' is meant taking faithfulness and sincerity as one's guiding principles, and moving continually to what is right. Again, to love a things means wanting it to live; to hate a thing means wanting it to perish. But suppose one wants something to live and at the same time wants it to perish; that is 'being in two minds.'"49 Confucius was able to give more than one answer to the same question to help explain it so his students could understand. While the master was walking with Fan Ch'ih under the trees at the Rain Dance altars, he was asked about the same two lines of verse plus another rhyming line on "repairing shortcomings." Confucius responded, "An excellent question! 'Doing the work first, and considering the reward afterwards;' is that not piling up virtue? 'Attack the evil that is within yourself, rather than attacking the evil that is in others;' is this not repairing shortcomings?

'Because of a morning's blind rage
To forget one's own safety
And even endanger one's kith and kind.'

is that not a case of a divided mind?"50 We see here again the possibility of an inner conflict in motivation, with one being clearly a greater good than the other.

One key to the practice of virtue was the golden mean. The Doctrine of the Mean, one of the great Confucian classics which was written within a few generations of Confucius, is a beautiful treatise on this subject. Although the mean is not elaborated upon in The Analects, it is mentioned by Confucius: "How transcendent is the virtue of the middle conduct! Rare for a long time has been its practice among the people."51 Virtue, for Confucius, was action, something which was practiced. The greatest danger to it was incorrect speech. "Clever talk can confound the workings of virtue, just as small impatiences can confound great projects."52 The Way of Confucius was a way of virtue, of inner spiritual power expressed through deeds. How does one become virtuous, and how does a virtuous person act? These were the most important studies for Confucius' students. Let us examine character development and self-improvement in Confucius' teachings and then explore his descriptions of goodness and the true gentleman.

Character Development and Self-improvement
The dominant subject matter in Confucius' teachings was how to become a good and virtuous person by improving one's own character. There are several Confucian virtues; here he indicates the results or criteria of goodness, wisdom, and courage. "He who is really good can never be unhappy. He who is really wise can never be perplexed. He who is really brave is never afraid."53 Although courage is a commonly valued virtue of the ancient times, Confucius believed it must be subordinate to justice, another cardinal virtue. When Tzu-lu asked if courage was to be esteemed by the gentleman, Confucius qualified it, "The gentleman holds justice to be of highest importance. If a gentleman has courage but neglects justice, he becomes insurgent. If an inferior man has courage but neglects justice, he becomes a thief."54 Confucius also give us a remarkably Socratic description of human wisdom. Again, Tzu-lu (Yu) who excelled in courage and daring needed to be reminded not only of justice but also of what wisdom or "meta-knowledge" is. Confucius said to him, "Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to recognize that you know it, and when you do not know a thing, to recognize that you do not know it. That is knowledge."55 Thus this higher-level knowledge of recognition becomes a check on the everyday knowledge and ignorance.

Confucius' main methods for attaining these virtues was, of course, learning. However, rote memorization was not at all sufficient; one must also be able to think. "He who learns but does not think is lost; he who thinks but does not learn is in danger."56 What are the dangers when one does not learn? Confucius asked Yu if he had heard the Six Sayings about the Six Degenerations. Tzu-lu had not, so Confucius explains what happens when love for each virtue is obscured because of lack of love for learning. Here again we see the role of love in the direction of motivation.

Love of goodness without love of learning degenerates into simple-mindedness. Love of knowledge without love of learning degenerates into utter lack of principle. Love of faithfulness without love of learning degenerates into injurious disregard of consequences. Love of uprightness without love of learning degenerates into harshness. Love of courage without love of learning degenerates into insubordination. Love of strong character without love of learning degenerates into mere recklessness.57

The learning which Confucius implies seems to be a wholistic knowledge of human character. The main emphasis is to know oneself, but by studying key signs one can also evaluate the character of another. The indications include one's goals, motives, methods, and what gives him satisfaction. "Look closely into his aims, observe the means by which he pursues them, discover what brings him content - and can the man's real worth remain hidden from you?"58 However, the most advantageous use of studying others is to learn how to correct and improve ourselves; regardless of the man's character we can learn a lesson, positive or negative. "When we see men of worth, we should think how we may learn to equal them. When we see men of a contrary character, we should turn inward and examine ourselves."59

Even so, it is difficult to recognize one's own failings and accuse oneself, but this fact indicates that there is always room for improvement. "In vain I have looked for a single man capable of seeing his own faults and bringing the charge home against himself."60 The important thing is at least to be working to improve oneself. The worst error is not to even make the attempt. "To have faults and to be making no effort to amend them is to have faults indeed!"61 Confucius also mentions this in connection with friendship and the virtues of faithfulness and sincerity. "First and foremost, be faithful to your superiors, keep all promises, refuse the friendship of all who are not like you; and if you have made a mistake, do not be afraid of admitting the fact and amending your ways."62 Confucius pointed out to his students which kinds of friends are beneficial and which may prove harmful to one's character. "There are three sorts of friendships which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendships with the upright, friendships with the sincere, and friendships with the well informed are advantageous. Friendships with those who flatter, friendships with those of weak principles, and friendships with those who talk cleverly are injurious."63 Likewise it is beneficial for one to be discriminating in his choice of pleasures, so as not to be harmed by dissipation.

There are three sorts of pleasures which are advantageous, and three which are injurious. Finding pleasure in the discriminating study of ceremonies and music, finding pleasure in discussing the good points in the conduct of others, and finding pleasure in having many wise friends, these are advantageous. But finding pleasure in profligate enjoyments, finding pleasure in idle gadding about, and finding pleasure in feasting, these are injurious.64

Confucius recommends a mean between extravagance and stinginess, though to err on the side of thrift is not the normal tendency and is less harmful. "Just as lavishness leads easily to presumption, so does frugality to meanness. But meanness is a far less serious fault than presumption."65 However, excessive pride and stinginess can overshadow and nullify many good attributes. Confucius illustrates this with the hypothetical example of the Duke of Chou who represents an ideal. "Even if a man had abilities as admirable as those of the Duke of Chou, if he is arrogant and mean, all the rest is of no account."66

In answering a question about what is enlightenment, Confucius describes it as a detachment in the face of verbal attacks, probably a necessary virtue for one involved in politics! "He who is influenced neither by the soaking in of slander nor by the assault of denunciation may indeed be called enlightened."67 He goes on to say that this could also be called "transcendence." We have seen how important words were to Confucius in the virtue of sincerity, or the keeping of promises. Here the enlightened man must be able to withstand false charges. In addition a man must live up to his inherent honesty or uprightness if the continuation of his life is to depend upon anything other than good fortune. "Man is born with uprightness. If one loses it, he will be lucky if he escapes with his life."68

Goodness
Of all the qualities and virtues of men Confucius esteemed as greatest what he called jen, translated here as goodness, but also interpreted as humanity, humaneness, human-heartedness, benevolence, etc. For Confucius this term represents the essence of being a good person. Although it was a noble ideal to the master and not easily realized, it still can be found very close at hand if not within oneself. "Is goodness far away? If we really wanted goodness, we should find that it is right here."69 Being good was the basis of character and pre-requisite to other subjects of study because of its importance. "If a man is not good, what has he to do with the rules of propriety? If he is not good, what has he to do with music?"70

Knowledge and wisdom are closely related to goodness. Also it is more important to increase one's own awareness than to be recognized by others. "A good man does not worry about not being known by others, but rather is concerned about not knowing them."71 He is also able to discern the qualities in people and act appropriately. "Only the good man knows how to like people or knows how to dislike people."72 This may be an old adage clarified by the statement which immediately follows it. "He whose heart is set upon goodness will dislike no one."73 This latter idea appeals to the goodness of our hearts, yet Confucius indicates it is also necessary to have the wisdom to discern the good. "It is goodness that gives to a neighborhood its beauty. One who is free to choose, yet does not prefer to dwell among the good---how can he be accorded the name of wise?"74 Goodness is also a stabilizing yet an adaptable quality within man enabling him to overcome difficulties and sustain success; therefore it is wise to pursue goodness. "Without goodness a man cannot endure adversity for long, nor can he enjoy prosperity for long. The good man is naturally at ease with goodness. The wise man cultivates goodness for its advantage."75 Confucius describes how men lacking in goodness tend to respond to hardships. "One who is by nature daring and is suffering from poverty will not long be law-abiding. Indeed, any men, save those that are truly good, if their sufferings are very great, will be likely to rebel."76 Confucius explains logically that goodness includes courage, but courage does not include goodness; just as virtue includes eloquence, while eloquence does not include virtue. "One who has accumulated virtue will certainly also possess eloquence; but he who has eloquence doe not necessarily possess virtue. A good man will certainly also possess courage; but a brave man is not necessarily good."77 The virtues are related to each other in an organized pattern, the goal of the whole being goodness. By analyzing individual faults and correcting them, one can approach closer to goodness. "Every man's faults belong to a set. If one looks for faults it is only as a means of recognizing goodness."78

Confucius encouraged his students to strive toward goodness in the belief that everyone has the energy to do so. By directing one's energy toward the good, the negative will have no opportunity to corrupt the person.

I have never seen one who really loves goodness or one who really hates wickedness. One who really loves goodness will not place anything above it. One who really hates wickedness will practice goodness in such a way that wickedness will have no chance to get at him. Is there anyone who has devoted his whole strength to doing good for even as long as a single day? I have not seen anyone give up such an attempt because he had not the strength to go on. Perhaps there is such a case, but I have never seen it.79

The caution in Confucius' speech can be seen in his not going beyond what he has observed while allowing for other possibilities.

The good man is trusting to a point, but is wise enough not to be made a fool. Tsai Yu tested Confucius on this point, asking him if a good man, if told there was a man in a well, would go in after him. The master replied, "Why should he do so? A gentleman may go to it, but cannot be made to go down into it. He may be deceived, but cannot be led astray."80 It is one thing to believe someone's words, but quite another to enter into a wrong action.

Although a person who has accumulated virtue is also eloquent, as we saw above, Confucius did not consider clever speaking to be necessary to a good man. This is indicated by an incident when someone said Jan Yung was good, but that he was a poor talker. Confucius responded, "What need has he to be a good talker? Those who put down others with smartness of speech usually find themselves hated. I do not know if he is good, but I see no need for him to be a good talker."81 Confucius rarely called anyone good. In fact Confucius believed one might better approach goodness by being cautious in speech. "Imperturbable, enduring, simple, slow to speak - such a one is near to goodness."82

Above all, goodness was correct conduct and behavior whether in private or public life. To express this Confucius mentions familiar occasions of special behavior and states again his golden rule.

Jan Jung asked about goodness. Confucius said, "Behave when away from home as though you were in the presence of an honored guest. Employ the people as though you were assisting at an important sacrifice. Do not do to others what you would not like yourself. Then there will be no feelings of opposition to you, whether it is the affairs of a state that you are handling or the affairs of a family."
Jan Jung said, "I know that I am not clever; I will make it my business to practice this lesson."83

Confucius, of course, intended that his students should put his recommendations into practice. When Fan Ch'ih asked about goodness, he gave a more abstract summary, but equally applicable. "In private life, be courteous; in public life, be diligent; in relationships, be loyal. Even if you are living amidst the barbarians of the east or north, these principles may not be set aside."84 His advice was usually universal enough to apply everywhere.

Ultimately goodness can go beyond improving oneself to actually helping others to improve oneself to actually helping others to improve themselves, but it must begin within oneself in order for one to know how to help others. The following conversation shows that Confucius could envision a level even beyond goodness - that of the divine sage.

Tzu-kung asked, "If a ruler extensively confers benefits on the people and can bring salvation to all, what do you think of him? Would you call him good?"

Confucius said, "Why only good? He would without doubt be a divine sage. Even Yao and Shun fell short of it. A good man, wishing to establish his own character, also establishes the character of others, and wishing to be successful himself, also helps others to be successful. To be able to see others by what is within ourselves may be called the art of realizing goodness."85

Here is a great key! By knowing what is within ourselves we can know others; knowing ourselves, we can improve ourselves and then benefit others also.

Before we move on to examine Confucius' concept of the gentleman, let us first note that he believed that goodness made a gentleman, but a gentleman was not necessarily good. "It is possible to be a gentleman and yet lack goodness, but there has never yet existed a good man who was not a gentle- man."86 This is a strong statement indicating the priority of goodness. Although not necessarily all-inclusive of all positive values in every context in which Confucius used the term, goodness does, however, appear to be the supreme value and the one most emphasized in his instruction.

The Gentleman
The term chun-tzu originally meant the "son of a ruler" and up to the time of Confucius was used to refer to a member of the upper class. Confucius may very well have been the first one to use this term extensively to mean a man of virtue and principle. Cho-yun Hsu in a recent history of ancient China wrote, "The Analects appears to be the earliest work in which chun-tzu was used to imply high moral standards in a person; here it denotes the ideal man whom all men should cultivate their characters to imitate.... Such a man, noble in virtue, was not necessarily a noble in social status."87 This is an indication of the tremendous influence Confucius must have had, that in his disciples' minds at least he could so change the meaning of this socially-laden term and liberate it from class notions to apply to one of moral principles. We are using the word "gentleman" here as an English equivalent although the common translation "superior man" is certainly valid.

Many of the same ideas about the good man are used to describe the gentleman as well. The following description indicates that the virtues enable the gentleman to command the respect of others: "If the gentleman is not serious, he will not be respected, and his learning will not be on a firm foundation. He considers loyalty and faithfulness to be fundamental, has no friends who are not like him, and when he has made mistakes, he is not afraid of correcting them."88 Although the gentleman may not have attained goodness, he acts in such a way so that he might become good.

Ssu-ma Niu once asked Confucius what the term "gentleman" meant. Confucius said that a gentleman has no anxiety or fear. Ssu-ma Niu then asked rhetorically if this is what is meant by being a gentleman. The master then elaborated, "On looking within himself he discovers nothing wrong. What is there for him to be anxious about or fear?"89 Here again self-examination and self-improvement are the keys. A gentleman is not worried by what others think of him, only that he correct himself. "A gentleman is distressed by his own lack of capacity; he is never distressed at the failure of others to recognize his merits."90 However, eventually he should be able to bring his good points to light; if he is never recognized at all, it may be an indication that he has not accomplished anything worthwhile. "A gentleman has reason to be distressed if he ends his days without making a reputation for himself."91

At three different stages of life, Confucius observes that the gentleman must watch out for certain prominent tendencies. "There are three things which a gentleman guards against. In his youth when his physical powers are not yet settled, he guards against lust. In his prime when his physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against strife. In old age when his physical powers are decaying, he guards against avarice."92 A keen student of human nature, Confucius is able to admonish his students to be aware of certain propensities of the life process.

Confucius gives his students an elaborate catalog of the concerns of a gentleman as guidelines for their behavior.

The gentleman has nine cares. In seeing he is careful to see clearly; in hearing he is careful to hear distinctly; in his looks he is careful to be kind, in his manner to be respectful, in his words to be sincere, in his work to be diligent. When in doubt he is careful to ask for information; when angry he has a care for the consequences; and when he sees a chance for gain, he thinks carefully whether the pursuits of it would be right.93

These may seem like common sense, but how often are these basic fundamentals of conduct neglected or ignored? By delineating them Confucius at least makes sure that his students have been made aware of them. If they were put into practice, how valuable they could be!

Confucius knew that wise words were not nearly as important as wise or good deeds. "The gentleman prefers to be slow in word but diligent in action."94 In fact the correlation between them was very important to the gentleman of Confucius' philosophy. "A gentleman is ashamed to let his words outrun his deeds."95 Such reminders were probably very helpful to his students who must have spent much time in conversation. A gentleman should also have the wisdom not to evaluate a man solely on his words, nor to reject a good idea because of who said it. "A gentleman does not promote a man on account of what he says; nor does he reject sayings, because the speaker is what he is."96

To make his points regarding better behavior and conduct, Confucius used to contrast the gentleman with the small man. In this way the students could recognize the mediocre or usual behavior and could seek to replace it with the higher ideal. For example, "The gentleman sets his heart on virtue; the small man sets his on comfort. The gentleman thinks of sanctions; the small man thinks of favors."97 Confucius recommends a more universal perspective. "The gentleman can see a question from all sides without bias. The small man is biased and can see a question only from one side."98 The broader view enables one to be guided by the higher standard of justice. "A gentleman in dealing with the world is not for anything or against anything; he follows what is right."99 The higher viewpoint begins from neutrality in order to see objectively. What is it which leads most people away from justice? "The gentleman understands what is right; the lesser man understands profit."100

Confucius recommends a positive attitude toward others rather than negative fault-finding. "The gentleman calls attention to the good points in others; he does not call attention to their defects. The small man does just the reverse of this."101 Continually Confucius emphasizes self-improvement and being responsible for oneself rather than inflicting on others. "The demands that a gentleman makes are upon himself; those that a small man makes are upon others."102 The influence of a gentleman, however, is not limited by his social position. "The gentleman can influence those who are above him; the small man can only influence those who are below him."103 The gentleman can also be distinguished by his disposition. "The gentleman is calm and at ease."104 Some of this difference may be the result of whether the conscience is clear or not. The inner attitude also carries over into one's manner. "The gentleman is dignified but not proud; the small man is proud but not dignified."105

Confucius' gentleman is an idealist rather than one merely striving to make ends meet; besides, the economy may go up or down anyway. "A gentleman, in his plans, thinks of the Way; he does not think how he is going to make a living. Even farming sometimes has a shortage; and even learning may incidentally bring a salary. A gentleman is concerned with the progress of the Way; he is not anxious about poverty."106 For Confucius, ethics always came first. There is human value beyond being able to work, and Confucius would avoid dehumanization. "The gentleman is not an implement."107

The gentleman is a creative and active being who knows how to get things accomplished in the correct way. "A gentleman considers justice to be essential in everything. He practices it according to the principles of propriety. He brings it forth in modesty and faithfully completes it. This is indeed a gentleman."108

Thus we find the model which Confucius placed before his students for them to study and learn to emulate. His curriculum is wholly concerned with the subjective development of the human being. Although some humanities such as literature, history, and philosophy were used as aids, the overall emphasis is on the improvement of each person's character so that he may be a good gentleman. If he were able to gain a political appointment as the result of his education, as several did, this was only an incidental consequence as far as Confucius was concerned. His purpose was to help people to become good.

Notes
1. Analects 2:18.
2. An. 15:2.
3. An. 15:23.
4. An. 13:3.
5. An. 20:3.
6. An. 7:24.
7. An. 8:8.
8. An. 6:25.
9. An. 7:6.
10. An. 1:6.
11. Lin Yutang, ed., The Wisdom of Confucius, p. 190-192.
12. I Ching (Wilhelm/Baynes), p. 322.
13. Lin Yutang, Wisdom of Confucius, p. 82-83.
14. Mote, Frederick W., Intellectual Foundations of China, p. 36.
15. An. 3:14.
16. Lin Yutang, Wisdom of Confucius, p. 80-81.
17. An. 2:2.
18. An. 17:9.
19. An. 3:23.
20. Lin Yutang, Wisdom of Confucius, p. 81-82.
21. Ibid. p. 82.
22. Ibid. p. 83.
23. Ibid. p. 67-68.
24. An. 1:12.
25. An. 8:2.
26. An. 3:4.
27. An. 6:16.
28. An. 3:18.
29. An. 13:5.
30. An. 13:13.
31. An. 15:32.
32. An. 8:13.
33. An. 14:4
34. An. 8:14.
35. An. 12:19.
36. An. 14:8.
37. An. 1:5.
38. An. 5:12.
39. An. 9:1.
40. An. 7:20.
41. An. 11:11.
42. An. 3:12.
43. An. 6:15.
44. An. 11:19.
45. An. 4:9.
46. An. 6:18.
47. An. 9:17 (Legge).
48. An. 9:17 (Waley).
49. An. 12:10.
50. An. 12:21.
51. An. 6:27.
52. An. 15:26.
53. An. 9:28.
54. An. 17:23.
55. An. 2:17.
56. An. 2:15.
57. An. 17:8.
58. An. 2:10
59. An. 4:17.
60. An. 5:26.
61. An. 15:29.
62. An. 9:24.
63. An. 16:4.
64. An. 16:5.
65. An. 7:35.
66. An. 8:11.
67. An. 12:6.
68. An. 6:17.
69. An. 7:29.
70. An. 3:3.
71. An. 1:16.
72. An. 4:3.
73. An. 4:4.
74. An. 4:1.
75. An. 4:2.
76. An. 8:10.
77. An. 14:5.
78. An. 4:7.
79. An. 4:6.
80. An. 6:24.
81. An. 5:4.
82. An. 13:27.
83. An. 12:2.
84. An. 13:19.
85. An. 6:28.
86. An. 14:7.
87. Hsu, Cho-yun, Ancient China in Transition, p. 161, 163.
88. An. 1:8.
89. An. 12:4.
90. An. 15:18.
91. An. 15:19.
92. An. 16:7.
93. An. 16:10.
94. An. 4:24.
95. An. 14:29.
96. An. 15:22.
97. An. 4:11.
98. An. 2:14.
99. An. 4:10.
100. An. 4:16.
101. An. 12:16.
102. An. 15:20.
103. An. 14:24.
104. An. 7:36.
105. An. 13:26.
106. An. 15:31.
107. An. 2:12.
108. An. 15:17.

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